J Nutr Health.  2017 Aug;50(4):350-360. 10.4163/jnh.2017.50.4.350.

Association of iron status and food intake with blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adolescent girls and women: Based on the 2010~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea. yjyang@dongduk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study examined and compared the associations of the iron status and food intake with the blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations among Korean adolescent girls, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women.
METHODS
The data from the 2010~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was used. The subjects were classified into three groups: adolescent girls (n = 268), premenopausal women (n = 1,157), and postmenopausal women (n = 446). The iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, and iron concentrations, as well as the total iron binding capacity (TIBC). The food intake was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire.
RESULTS
The blood heavy metal concentrations and poisoning rate in postmenopausal women were higher than in the other groups. The iron status in the adolescent girls and postmenopausal women was higher than that in the premenopausal women. In the adolescent girls, the iron status was inversely associated with the blood cadmium concentration. The dairy food intake was inversely related to the blood lead and cadmium concentrations. In premenopausal women, the iron status was inversely associated with the cadmium concentrations. The fish and shellfish food intakes were positively associated with the mercury concentrations. In postmenopausal women, the iron status was positively associated with the mercury and cadmium concentrations. Fast foods and fried foods were inversely associated with the lead concentration.
CONCLUSION
The premenopausal women showed a lower iron status than the adolescent girls and postmenopausal women. The associations of the iron status with the blood heavy metal concentrations were different among the adolescent girls, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. In addition, the relationships of the food intakes with the blood heavy metal concentrations differed among adolescent girls, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Further studies will be needed to confirm these findings.

Keyword

iron status; lead; mercury; cadmium; food intake

MeSH Terms

Adolescent*
Cadmium
Eating*
Fast Foods
Female*
Ferritins
Hematocrit
Humans
Iron*
Korea*
Nutrition Surveys*
Poisoning
Shellfish
Cadmium
Ferritins
Iron
Full Text Links
  • JNH
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr