J Nutr Health.  2017 Jun;50(3):257-269. 10.4163/jnh.2017.50.3.257.

3-in-1 coffee consumption is associated with metabolic factors in adults: Based on 2012~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Seowon University, Chongju 28674, Korea.
  • 2Division of Food Science and Culinary Arts, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu 11644, Korea. byj@shinhan.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of metabolic factors in adults consuming 3-in-1 coffee from the 2012~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
A total of 5,872 subjects (male = 2,253, female = 3,619) aged 19~64 yrs were presented with food frequency questionnaires, and they were classified according to coffee consumption level and types of coffee consumed (black coffee, ≤1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee, > 1 and ≤2 times/day of 3-in-1 coffee, > 2 times/day of 3-in-1 coffee). Analysis was conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19~39 (male = 968 and female = 1,285) and 40~64 (male = 1,468, female = 2,151) yrs old.
RESULTS
Black coffee consumption was associated with a significantly higher education level and household income compared to 3-in-1 coffee consumption in both males and females. The > 2 times/day group had significantly more smokers compared to other patterns of coffee consumption in both males and females. In the 40~64 yrs age group, males and females in the > 2 times/day group had significantly lower density of micronutrients such as fiber, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus,and potassium compared with black coffee consumption. In the 40~64 yrs age group, males (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.13~3.64) in the > 2 times/day group were at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared with black coffee consumption after multivariable adjustment.
CONCLUSION
We found that frequency of 3-in-1 coffee consumption may be associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome in males aged 40~64 yrs.

Keyword

3-in 1 coffee; black coffee; consumption; metabolic factors; adults
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