J Korean Med Sci.  2017 Sep;32(9):1496-1501. 10.3346/jkms.2017.32.9.1496.

Chronological Trends in Clinical and Urinary Metabolic Features over 20 Years in Korean Urolithiasis Patients

  • 1Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea. lscuro@chungbuk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.
  • 3Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.


Urolithiasis is common and is becoming more prevalent worldwide. This study assessed the chronological trends in clinical and urinary metabolic features over 20 years in Korean urolithiasis patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 4,076 patients treated at our clinic from 1996 to 2015. Urinary metabolic data and stone analysis data were available for 1,421 and 723 patients (34.9% and 17.7%), respectively. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the date of initial diagnosis: group 1 (1996-2000, n = 897), group 2 (2001-2005, n = 1,018), group 3 (2006-2010, n = 1,043), and group 4 (2011-2015, n = 1,118). Incidental detection of uric acid renal stones has become more prevalent in the past 10 years, accompanied by an increase in body mass index and age at diagnosis. Similarly, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and of hypertension increased from one group to the next throughout the study period. Levels of 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium, calcium, uric acid, and oxalate have decreased significantly over the study period. The incidence of urinary metabolic abnormalities also showed an identical tendency. The proportion of stones composed of uric acid increased over the study period. In conclusion, incidental detection of uric acid renal stones has become more prevalent in Korea in the past 20 years. Urinary excretion of lithogenic constituents and the incidence of urinary metabolic abnormalities have decreased significantly over this period.


Urolithiasis; Risk Factor; Stone Analysis; Uric Acid
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