Saf Health Work.  2014 Jun;5(2):86-90. 10.1016/

Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon from Rubber Wood Burning

  • 1Occupational Health Unit, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
  • 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.


Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was selected as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to explore the accumulation level in the bodies of workers at rubber smoke sheet factories in southern Thailand.
Spot urine samples were taken from four groups of workers from June 2006 to November 2007. The nonexposure or control groups included habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. The other two groups were workers exposed to particle-bound PAHs from rubber wood smoke and they were nonsmokers. All spot urine samples were analyzed for 1-OHP and creatinine levels.
The mean +/- standard deviation urinary 1-OHP in the control group of habitual smokers and the nonsmokers was 0.24 +/- 0.16 mumol/mol creatinine and not-detected to 0.14 mumol/mol creatinine, respectively. In the workers, the 1-OHP levels on workdays had no significant difference from the 1-OHP levels on the days off. The yearly average 1-OHP level was 0.76 +/- 0.41 mumol/mol creatinine whereas the average 1-OHP level during 10 consecutive workdays was 1.06 +/- 0.29 mumol/mol creatinine (p > 0.05).
The urinary 1-OHP levels of workers exposed to PAHs were high. The accumulation of 1-OHP in the body was not clear although the workers had long working hours with few days off during their working experience. Therefore, a regular day off schedule and rotation shift work during high productive RSS should be set for RSS workers.


1-hydroxypyrene; biomass burning; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; rubber wood
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