Korean J Intern Med.  2016 Mar;31(2):313-322. 10.3904/kjim.2014.363.

Comparison of two- and three-dimensional sonography for the prediction of the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid carcinomas

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Busan Veterans Hospital, Busan, Korea.
  • 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea. injkim@pusan.ac.kr
  • 3Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Internal Medicine, Kim Yong Ki Internal Medicine Clinic, Busan, Korea.
  • 5Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS
The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic validity of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) when predicting the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid cancer.
METHODS
All 2D data were interpreted in real time and 3D data were stored, rendered using tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), and then reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS
Extrathyroidal extension was present in 17 papillary thyroid cancers(24.3%) on pathology reports. The presence of contact was significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension on both 2D and 3D US (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003), and the sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between 2D and 3D US (p = 1.000 and p = 0.754). The coexistence of protrusion and contact was not significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension on either 2D or 3D sonogram.
CONCLUSIONS
Three-dimensional images rendered with TUI algorithms alone do not seem to be markedly superior to real-time 2D US in predicting the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid cancer.

Keyword

Thyroid neoplasm; Tumor staging; Extrathyroidal extension; Three-dimensional ultrasonography; Tomographic ultrasound imaging
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