Gut Liver.  2016 Mar;10(2):204-211. 10.5009/gnl15420.

Colorectal Cancer Screening: Stool DNA and Other Noninvasive Modalities

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. jarobail@iupui.edu
  • 2Community Health Network, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
  • 3Regenstrief Institute Inc. and Center of Innovation, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
  • 4Health Services Research and Development, Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer screening dates to the discovery of pre-cancerous adenomatous tissue. Screening modalities and guidelines directed at prevention and early detection have evolved and resulted in a significant decrease in the prevalence and mortality of colorectal cancer via direct visualization or using specific markers. Despite continued efforts and an overall reduction in deaths attributed to colorectal cancer over the last 25 years, colorectal cancer remains one of the most common causes of malignancy-associated deaths. In attempt to further reduce the prevalence of colorectal cancer and associated deaths, continued improvement in screening quality and adherence remains key. Noninvasive screening modalities are actively being explored. Identification of specific genetic alterations in the adenoma-cancer sequence allow for the study and development of noninvasive screening modalities beyond guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing which target specific alterations or a panel of alterations. The stool DNA test is the first noninvasive screening tool that targets both human hemoglobin and specific genetic alterations. In this review we discuss stool DNA and other commercially available noninvasive colorectal cancer screening modalities in addition to other targets which previously have been or are currently under study.

Keyword

Colorectal cancer; Colorectal cancer screening; sDNA; Stool DNA
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