Child Health Nurs Res.  2016 Jul;22(3):182-189. 10.4094/chnr.2016.22.3.182.

Effects of Parenting Stress in North Korean Refugee Fathers on Their Parenting Behavior

  • 1Department of Nursing, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea.
  • 2Hanawon, Ministry of Unification, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to identify effects of parenting stress in North Korean refugee fathers on their parenting behavior.
A descriptive study design was used. Data were collected during 2014 and 2015 in a settlement support center for North Korean refugees and 99 North Korean refugee fathers participated. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0.
Warmth·encouragement parenting behavior received the highest score. The score for parenting stress was 81.98 out of 180, and 32.3% of participants were found to need professional help (≥PSI 90). There were significant negative correlations between warmth·encouragement parenting behavior and parenting stress. There were also significant positive correlations between rejection·neglect parenting behavior and parenting stress. Predictors of warmth·encouragement behavior were parent-child dysfunctional interaction which explained 10.1% of the variance. Predictors of rejection·neglect behavior were parent-child dysfunctional interaction, number of children and wife's education level which explained 33.4% of the variance.
Findings show that North Korean refugee fathers' parenting stress significantly influenced warmth·encouragement and rejection·neglect parenting behavior indicating a need to identify ways to decrease parenting stress. Parenting education can guide North Korean refugee fathers to strengthen parent-child positive interactions and therefore promote their children's growth and development.


Parenting; Stress; Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea); Refugee; Fathers
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