Nutr Res Pract.  2016 Jun;10(3):288-293. 10.4162/nrp.2016.10.3.288.

Elevation of heart-femoral pulse wave velocity by short-term low sodium diet followed by high sodium diet in hypertensive patients with sodium sensitivity

Affiliations
  • 1Cardiovascular Center, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, 27 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10326, Korea. mooyong_rhee@dumc.or.kr
  • 2Emergency Medicine and Cardiology, Emergency Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.
  • 3Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38067, Korea.
  • 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang 10326, Korea.
  • 5Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Health Science & Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
We compared changes in heart-femoral pulse wave velocity (hfPWV) in response to low sodium and high sodium diet between individuals with sodium sensitivity (SS) and resistance (SR) to evaluate the influence of sodium intake on arterial stiffness.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
Thirty-one hypertensive and 70 normotensive individuals were given 7 days of low sodium dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet (LSD, 100 mmol NaCl/day) followed by 7 days of high sodium DASH diet (HSD, 300 mmol NaCl/day) during 2 weeks of hospitalization. The hfPWV was measured and compared after the LSD and HSD.
RESULTS
The hfPWV was significantly elevated from LSD to HSD in individuals with SS (P = 0.001) independently of changes in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.037). Conversely, there was no significant elevation of hfPWV from LSD to HSD in individuals with SR. The percent change in hfPWV from the LSD to the HSD in individuals with SS was higher than that in individuals with SR. Subgroup analysis revealed that individuals with both SS and hypertension showed significant elevation of hfPWV from LSD to HSD upon adjusted analysis using changes of the means arterial pressure (P = 0.040). However, there was no significant elevation of hfPWV in individuals with SS and normotension.
CONCLUSION
High sodium intake elevated hfPWV in hypertensive individuals with SS, suggesting that high sodium intake increases aortic stiffness, and may contribute to enhanced cardiovascular risk in hypertensive individuals with SS.

Keyword

Dietary sodium; hypertension; vascular sensitivity

MeSH Terms

Arterial Pressure
Diet*
Hospitalization
Humans
Hypertension
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Pulse Wave Analysis*
Sodium*
Sodium, Dietary
Vascular Stiffness
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Sodium
Sodium, Dietary
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