J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc.  2006 Nov;45(6):511-517.

Depressive Symptoms, Explanatory Styles and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Schizophrenia

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. dsmc2003@hanmail.net

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
This study evaluated the explanatory styles, dysfunctional attitudes and their relationship to depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.
METHODS
Twenty nine patients with major depressive disorder, 35 patients with schizophrenia and 43 normal controls completed the self-rating scales for explanatory styles (Forced Attributional Style Questionnaire, FASQ), dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, DAS), depressive symptom (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale, BHS).
RESULTS
Patients with major depressive disorder (BDI : 27.0+/-14.30, BHS : 8.8+/-6.59) and those with schizophrenia (BDI : 16.1+/-12.39, BHS : 5.6+/-5.21) had significantly higher BDI and BHS scores than normal control (BDI : 5.8+/-5.53, BHS : 2.4+/-3.61). DAS total scores were significantly higher in patients with major depressive disorder (171.3+/-22.96) and schizophrenia (161.8+/-32.96) than normal control (139.9+/-30.94), but there were no significant differences between patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Regarding FASQ subscales, the global positive score was significantly higher in patients with major depressive disorder (3.7+/-1.36) and with schizophrenia (3.4+/-1.73) than normal control (2.5+/-1.39). BDI total scores correlated significantly with stable negative and global negative scores of FASQ in major depressive disorder, but only with global negative scores in schizophrenia and normal control. DAS total scores correlated with BDI scores not only in major depressive disorder, but also in schizophrenia and normal controls.
CONCLUSION
The results suggested that dysfunctional attitude is significantly severe not only in patients with major depressive disorder but also in schizophrenic patients compared to normal control. Also, there seems to be a positive correlation between cognitive distortion and depressive symptoms not only in major depressive disorder, but also in schizophrenia. However, this study is not able to clarify their causal relationship. Further study is necessary to clarify the causal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive distortion and the cultural effect on cognitive distortion in major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

Keyword

Depressive symptom; Explanatory style; Dysfunctional attitude; Major depressive disorder; Schizophrenia
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