J Korean Geriatr Psychiatry.  2004 Jun;8(1):56-62.

Factors Related to the Morale of Korean Elders

  • 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kosin University, School of Medicine, Busan, Korea. cheonjs@kosin.md
  • 2Department of Occupational, Kosin University, School of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
  • 3Department of and Environmental Medicine, Kosin University, School of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Philosophy, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Humanities, Seoul, Korea.
  • 5Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


The aims of this study were to assess the morale of Korean elders, to analyze the affecting factors, and to look for the ways to raise their morale.
The structured interviews and measurements of depression (Four-Item Geriatric Depression Scale and Vulnerability Factors), cognitive function (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire) and morale(Measurement of Morale in the Elderly Scale, MMES) were taken for the 50 Korean elders (28 females and 22 males) with age over 65 who were visiting Jong Myo during January to February in 2004.
1) In Korean elders, the mean scores of total MMES were 100.82+/-12.36. According to the items, mean scores of Satisfaction were 43.52+/-5.14, Equanimity 36.80+/-7.53, Will-to-live 20.00+/-4.43. 2) The total MMES scores were significantly affected by variables such as income (p<0.05), economy (p<0.005), elder abuse (p<0.01) and depression (p<0.001). While other variables including age, residence, education, number of children, sex, religion, spouse, job, illness and cognitive function were not related.
To encourage morale in the Korean elders, economic support by welfarism, socio-legal prevention of elder abuse, and active involvement of geropsychiatrists into the early detection and treatment of depression must be needed.


Morale of Korean elders; Satisfaction; Equanimity; Will-to-live; Economy; Elder abuse; Depression
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