J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2016 Jun;40(2):92-99. 10.11149/jkaoh.2016.40.2.92.

Evaluation of the whitening and remineralization effects of a mixture of amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and tetrasodium pyrophosphate on bovine enamel

  • 1Department of Dental Hygiene, Daegu Health College, Daegu, Korea.
  • 2Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Korea.
  • 3Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea. kbsong@knu.ac.kr


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the whitening effect, morphological and structural changes, and remineralization of the enamel induced by 3 combined agents: amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSP).
The study was performed on 90 bovine enamel slabs, which were divided into the 6 groups: negative control-distilled water (Group 1); positive control-opalescence F (Group 2); 10% mixed agent (Group 3); 25% mixed agent (Group 4); 50% mixed agent (Group 5); and 100% mixed agent (Group 6). Changes in the shade of the enamel slabs were evaluated using Shade Eye-NCC. Morphological changes were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine the remineralizing effect of the three agents on enamel slabs.
The change in shade of the enamel (ad*) was noted to increase significantly with increase in whitening frequency in all groups. The value of Δn* was significantly greater in all groups except for the negative control group (P<0.001). SEM revealed that the control group, Group 5, and Group 6 had similar morphologies. The fluorescence lesion areas in the 4 mixture-treated group were significantly smaller than those in the positive control group (P<0.001).
These results showed that the mixture of ACP, HA, and TSP was highly effective for bovine enamel whitening and acted by inducing the remineralization of enamel. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: We evaluated the applicability of a new mixture containing ACP, HA, and TSP. This mixture would be highly useful in aesthetic dentistry because of its whitening efficiency, which does not compromise the enamel's integrity.


Amorphous calcium phosphate; Hydroxyapatite; Remineralization; Tetrasodium pyrophosphate; Whitening
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