J Korean Acad Womens Health Nurs.  2000 Dec;6(4):549-565.

Health Risk Behaviors Affecting the Process of Pregnancy

Abstract

Comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to determine 1) selected risk factors and its impact that affect pregnancy outcome such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and substance abuse 2) these factors can facilitate future strategies for health promotion and prevention for both pregnant women and fetus. Review of literature were extracted from searching MEDLINE(1966 - Oct. 2000). CINAHL (1982 - Oct. 2000) and the domestic literature. The following factors were identified: 1. The effects of risk behaviors on pregnancy. Maternal smoking was associated with the occurrence of premature or LBW delivery, fetal growth retardation, extremities defects, heart defects and sudden infant death syndrome. Maternal alcohol consumption was associated with spontaneous abortion, premature or LBW delivery, morphologic/neurologic problems, especially fetal alcohol syndrome. Heroin was associated with withdrawal after birth in which were born to heroine addicts for gestational age and lung maturation in animal studies. Cocaine was associated with spontaneous abortion, abruptio placenta and a poor response to environmental stimuli. So far, the effects of caffeine on pregnancy was controversial, but severe caffeine consumption was associated with premature or LBW delivery, spontaneous abortion, still birth and dystocia. 2. Intervention methods and its effects identified were as follows Conducted intervention for smoking, alcohol and drug consumption were single or combined. Intervention methods were counseling, phone contact, mailing, use of educational videotape, booklet, support person and alternatives such as nicotine patch. The interventions increased the rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy and awareness of the risk of drug consumption, and decreased amount of alcohol consumption. The intervention outcome found positive effect on birth weight and length. 3. Our recommendations were as follows The personal and social cognition should be enhanced through education and the mass media. It's necessary to educate and give information of preconceptional care, planned pregnancy and early prenatal care for optimal pregnancy outcome. It's necessary to develop comprehensive assessment tool which is reliable and valid on smoking, alcohol consumption and substance abuse to identify supportive or interventional program.


MeSH Terms

Abortion, Spontaneous
Alcohol Drinking
Animals
Birth Weight
Caffeine
Cocaine
Cognition
Counseling
Dystocia
Education
Extremities
Family Planning Services
Female
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Fetal Growth Retardation
Fetus
Gestational Age
Health Promotion
Heart
Heroin
Humans
Lung
Mass Media
Pamphlets
Parturition
Placenta
Postal Service
Pregnancy Outcome
Pregnancy*
Pregnant Women
Prenatal Care
Risk Factors
Risk-Taking*
Smoke
Smoking
Smoking Cessation
Substance-Related Disorders
Sudden Infant Death
Tobacco Use Cessation Products
Videotape Recording
Caffeine
Cocaine
Heroin
Smoke
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