J Nutr Health.  2013 Oct;46(5):447-460.

Dietary maximum exposure assessment of vitamins and minerals from various sources in Korean adolescents

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Home Economics Education, Graduate School of Kongju National University, Gongju 314-701, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716, Korea.
  • 3Department of Technology and Home Economics Education, Kongju National University, Gongju 314-701, Korea. shkim@kongju.ac.kr

Abstract

Dietary supplement use is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary maximum exposure of vitamins and minerals from various sources including regular diet, vitamin.mineral supplements for non-prescription drug (VMS-NPD), vitamin.mineral supplements for health functional foods (VMS-HFF), and fortified foods (FF). A total of 1,407 adolescent boys and girls attending middle or high schools were chosen from various cities and rural communities in Korea. Users of vitamin and mineral supplements (n = 60, 15-18 years of age) were chosen from the above 1,407 students. Intake of vitamins and minerals from a regular diet and FF was assessed by both food record method and direct interview for three days of two weekdays and one weekend, and those from VMS-NPD and VMS-HFF were assessed by both questionnaire and direct interview, and compared with the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) and the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for Korean adolescents. Daily average exposure range of vitamins and minerals from a regular diet was 0.3 to 4.4 times of the RNI. Some subjects had an excessive exposure to the UL in the following areas: from regular diets, vitamin A (1.7%) and niacin (5.0%); from only VMS-NPD, vitamin C (9.1%) and iron (5.6%); and from only VMS-HFF, niacin (8.6%) > vitamin B6 (7.5%) > folic acid (2.9%) > vitamin C (2.3%). Nutrients of daily total intake from regular diet, VMS-NPD, VMS-HFF, and FF higher than the UL included nicotinic acid for 33.3% of subjects, and, then, in order, vitamin C (26.6%) > vitamin A (13.3%), iron (13.3%) > zinc (11.7%) > calcium (5.0%) > vitamin E (1.7%), vitamin B6 (1.7%). Thus, findings of this study showed that subjects may potentially be at risk due to overuse of supplements, even though most of them took enough vitamins and minerals from their regular diet. Therefore, we should encourage adolescents to have sound health care habits through systematic and educational aspects.

Keyword

vitamin and mineral exposure assessment; tolerable upper intake level (UL); vitamin.mineral supplements; adolescents

MeSH Terms

Adolescent*
Ascorbic Acid
Calcium
Delivery of Health Care
Diet
Dietary Supplements
Folic Acid
Food, Fortified
Functional Food
Humans
Iron
Korea
Minerals*
Niacin
Surveys and Questionnaires
Rural Population
Vitamin A
Vitamin B 6
Vitamin E
Vitamins*
Zinc
Ascorbic Acid
Calcium
Folic Acid
Iron
Minerals
Niacin
Vitamin A
Vitamin B 6
Vitamin E
Vitamins
Zinc

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Distribution of daily total intakes of vitamin and mineral from various sources including regular diet, vitamin·mineral supplements for non-prescription drug, vitamin·mineral supplements for health functional foods, and fortified foods of the subjects. UL: tolerable upper intake level.23)

  • Fig. 2 Percentage of each source of daily total maximum intakes (97.5th percentile) of vitamins and minerals from regular diet, vitamin·mineral supplements for non-prescription drug (VMS-NPD), vitamin·mineral supplements for health functional foods (VMS-HFF), and fortified foods (FF) of the subjects. Folic acid was expressed by the ratio of intake from VMS-NPD, VMS-HFF, and fortified foods except regular diet.


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