J Nurs Acad Soc.  1995 Mar;25(1):17-29.

Analysis of the Content of Telephone Counseling with Breastfeeding mothers

Abstract

This study was done to analysis data on breastfeeding mothers. This study was conducted using data from telephone counseling in one metropolitan area. The subjects who had received consultation about breastfeeding were 100 breastfeeding mothers. The period of consultation was from Mar. 9,1994 to August 23,1994. Consultants were referred from UNICEF, hospitals, TV, newspapers or magazines. Analysis of the problem patterns resulted in 11 classifications. These were physio-anatomical factors(11 cases), psychological factors(15 cases), breastfeeding methods(21 cases), breastfeeding intervals and frequency(19 cases), disease in the breastfeeding mothers(13 cases), disease in the babies(12 cases), lack of support(4 cases), food and drugs while breastfeeding(5 cases), weaning(11 cases), others(27 cases). The highest frequency was for breastfeeding methods(21 cases). When the contents of the counselling were analyzed for the 100 cases, 36 problem patterns were identified. Patterns with over 10 responses were diarrhea, insufficient milk supply, sore and cracked nipples, weaning, inverted nipples and jaundice. The age of infants when mothers were telephoned was as below: 1 week(28 cases), 2 weeks(12 cases), 3-4 weeks(18 cases), 5-8 weeks(7 cases), 9 weeks - 3 months (4 cases), 4 months - 6 months (12 cases), over 6 months(2 cases), and the number of pregnant women was 12. The nursing diagnosis were classified according to problem patterns and each diagnosis was assigned an appropriate problem pattern. The total number of nursing diagnoses was 22. When clients are referred for counselling nurses need guidelines about problems, possible causes and nursing. In this study, the example of guidelines for sore nipples is suggested. The recommendations based on the telephone counseling results are as follows: Prenatal education about the advantages of breastfeeding and breast care, and home visits after delivery for counseling related to breastfeeding. During the hospital stay, nursing intervention such as education on breastfeeding methods using slides, audio -visual tapes, pamphlets are needed as well as an initial trial of breastfeeding. Further research is indicated on the perceived lack of breast milk and on the effectiveness of nursing interventions to promote breastfeeding.

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