J Neurogastroenterol Motil.  2013 Jan;19(1):18-24.

Recent Advances in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Gastroparesis

  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. ojh@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


Gastroparesis is a clinical disorder characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms related with delayed gastric emptying of solids and liquids in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetes mellitus has been the most common cause of gastroparesis and idiopathic gastroparesis also accounts for a third of all chronic cases. The most important mechanisms of gastroparesis, as understood to date, are loss of expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and loss of the interstitial cells of Cajal. However, the pathogenesis of gastroparesis is poorly understood. There have been several studies on specific molecules related to the pathogenesis of gastroparesis. Additionally, the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium of the National Institutes of Health has achieved several promising results regarding the pathophysiology of gastroparesis. As the progress in the pathophysiology of gastroparesis has been made, a promising new drug therapy has been found. The pathophysiology and drug therapy of gastroparesis are focused in this review. Until now, the real-world medication options for treatment of gastroparesis are limited. However, it is expected to be substantially improved as the pathophysiology of gastroparesis is elucidated.


Diabetes mellitus; Etiology; Gastroparesis; Physiopathology; Therapy

MeSH Terms

Diabetes Mellitus
Gastric Emptying
Interstitial Cells of Cajal
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
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