J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2013 Sep;37(3):126-131.

Clinical evaluation of the bleaching effect of chewing gum containing amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and tricalcium pyrophosphate on human enamel

  • 1Department of Preventive Dentistry, Kyungpook National University School of Dentistry, Daegu, Korea. kbsong@knu.ac.kr


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bleaching effect of chewing gum containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and tricalcium pyrophosphate (TSP) on human enamel.
Seventy-three subjects aged 20-30 years were recruited after obtaining their informed consent and approval of the Institutional Review Board. All subjects were randomly assigned to the following four groups: (I) negative control group; (II) 50% gum group; (III) 100% gum group; and (IV) positive control group (10% carbamide peroxide). They received gum containing ACP, HA, and TSP, three times a day, for 4 weeks. Group IV also received 10% CP application using individual trays, once a day, for 2 weeks. Color change was measured using the Shade Eye-NCC colorimeter at weekly intervals, during the 4-week period. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0.
Color changes (DeltaE*) were significantly different among the groups at 2 and 4 weeks after chewing the gum (P<0.05). Given that bleaching effect of Group IV was 100%, bleaching effects of Group III, Group II, and Group I were 54%, 46%, and 36%, respectively.
Chewing gum containing ACP, HA, and TSP was effective enough to bleach the human enamel. Further comprehensive studies and assessment will be required to ascertain the bleaching effects and mechanism of chewing gum containing various components such as ACP, HA, and TSP using various methods of experiment and analysis.


Amorphous calcium phosphate; Bleaching; Hydroxyapatite; Tricalcium pyrophosphate
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