Sleep Med Psychophysiol.  2006 Jun;13(1):22-26.

Association of the Period3 Gene Polymorphism and Seasonal Variations in Mood and Behavior

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Circadian rhythms have been observed to be disturbed in mood disorders, especially seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Clock related gene variants also have been suggested to be associated with seasonality (seasonal variations in mood and behavior). This study tested the potential association between a length polymorphism of Period3 gene and seasonal variations in mood and behavior. 297 Korean college students were genotyped for the Period3 polymorphism and were for evaluated the seasonal variation by Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). The genotype frequencies were 0.76 for 4R/4R, 0.22 for 4R/5R and 0.013 for 5R/5R. The global seasonality score was not different among Period3 gene variants (4R/4R, 4R/5R and 5R/5R) except for 'sleep length' subscore. The 5R/5R genotype showed the higher 'sleep length' subscore than others (p=0.024). The comparison between seasonals (syndromal plus subsyndromal SAD determined by SPAQ) and non-seasonals did not show any significant difference in frequencies of genotypes. These findings suggest that there is a possibility that the investigated Period3 polymorphism may play a partial role in the susceptibility of seasonal variations in a Korean population.


Seasonality; Period3; Polymorphism
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