Psychiatry Investig.  2016 Jan;13(1):1-7. 10.4306/pi.2016.13.1.1.

Three Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks from Resting-State Functional MRI in Subjects with Different Levels of Cognitive Impairment

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. jihan@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Normal aging and to a greater degree degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), cause changes in the brain's structure and function. Degenerative changes in brain structure and decline in its function are associated with declines in cognitive ability. Early detection of AD is a key priority in dementia services and research. However, depending on the disease progression, neurodegenerative manifestations, such as cerebral atrophy, are detected late in course of AD. Functional changes in the brain may be an indirect indicator of trans-synaptic activity and they usually appear prior to structural changes in AD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has recently been highlighted as a new technique for interrogating intrinsic functional connectivity networks. Among the majority of RS-fMRI studies, the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN) gained particular focus because alterations to their functional connectivity were observed in subjects who had AD, who had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or who were at high risk for AD. Herein, we present a review of the current research on changes in functional connectivity, as measured by RS-fMRI. We focus on the DMN, SN, and CEN to describe RS-fMRI results from three groups: normal healthy aging, MCI and AD.

Keyword

Alzheimer's; Aging; Functional connectivity; fMRI; Resting state

MeSH Terms

Aging
Alzheimer Disease
Atrophy
Brain Diseases
Brain*
Dementia
Disease Progression
Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
Mild Cognitive Impairment
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