J Mov Disord.  2016 May;9(2):55-62. 10.14802/jmd.16014.

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Focal Hand Dystonia: Update and Future Direction

  • 1Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. hallettm@ninds.nih.gov


Focal hand dystonia (FHD) is characterized by excessive and unwanted muscle activation in both the hand and arm resulting in impaired performance in particular tasks. Understanding the pathophysiology of FHD has progressed significantly for several decades and this has led to consideration of other potential therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). A number of studies have been conducted to develop new therapy for FHD using transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. In this paper, we review previous studies and describe the potential therapeutic use of NIBS for FHD. We also discuss the future direction of NIBS to treat FHD.


Focal hand dystonia; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Transcranial direct current stimulation
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