Korean J Gastrointest Endosc.  2006 May;32(5):320-325.

Risk Factors for Upper Gastrointestinal Rebleeding in Critically Ill Patients

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. jooskim@snu.ac.kr


BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with rebleeding after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in critically ill patients.
This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients undergoing bedside esophagogastroduodenoscopy between April 2000 and February 2004 for UGIB that developed whilst in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Eight out of 60 patients died within 7 days, and an additional 7 patients died within 30 days after the initial bleeding. Two of these 15 patients (13.3%), died from GI bleeding. The 7-day and 30-day rebleeding rates were 34.6% (18/52 patients), and 51.1% (23/45 patients), respectively. Multiple logistic regression using the significant variables revealed, anemia (Hb<9.0 g/dL) and hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 g/dL) to be significant factor for 7-day rebleeding, and hypoxia (<80 mmHg), anemia (Hb<9.0 g/dL), blood transfusion (> or =3 units) to be significant independent risk factor for 30-day rebleeding.
The rebleeding rates in the ICU setting were as high as 34.6% at 7 days and 51.1% at 30 days. This suggests that the underlying conditions of the critically ill patients affect the rebleeding rate more than the endoscopic features. Therefore, adequate general ICU care including the prevention and correction of hypoxia, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia, and minimizing blood loss can reduce the risk of rebleeding after UGIB in an ICU setting.


Rebleeding; Risk factor; Intensive care unit; Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
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