Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci.  2014 Dec;12(3):203-208. 10.9758/cpn.2014.12.3.203.

Executive Dysfunction among Children with Antipsychotic Treated Schizophrenia

  • 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Division, Department of Psychiatry, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA.
  • 3Department of Child Psychiatry, Center for Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Nagoya, Japan.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the executive function among adolescents with antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia in Child and Adolescent Outpatient Clinic at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta.
This was a cross sectional study with control group. Case was defined as adolescents with antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia without any mental retardation or other physical illnesses (n=45). The control group consisted of healthy and age-matched adolescents (n=135). Executive function is determined by using Indonesian version of Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-Indonesian version). We used SPSS 16.0 program for windows to calculate the prevalence risk ratio (PRR) and set up the p value <0.05.
Mean of age was 16.27 (standard deviation 1.86) year-old. Most of the case group (95%) has been treated with atypical antipsychotic such as risperidone, aripipripazole, olanzapine, and clozapine. Duration of having antipsychotic medication was ranged from one to 36 months. Adolescents with antipsychotic treated-schizophrenia had higher BRIEF T-score, except for inhibit scale, shift scale and behavior regulation index. The prevalence risk ratio on several clinical scales were higher in children with antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia compared to control group, such as on emotional state (PRR=7.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.38-23.15), initiate scale (PRR=6.32, 95% CI=2.51-15.95), monitor scale (PRR=8.11, 95% CI=2.0-32.86), and behavior regulation index (PRR=4.09, 95% CI=1.05-15.98).
In general, the results showed that adolescents with atypical antipsychotic treated-schizophrenia had higher BRIEF T-score compared, and comparable with their normal group control.


Childhood schizophrenia; Antipsychotics; Executive function; Indonesia
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