Korean J Community Nutr.  2016 Apr;21(2):131-139. 10.5720/kjcn.2016.21.2.131.

Relationship between Eating Style and Food Intake of Healthy Female College Students during Chuseok Holidays

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea. sykim@gnu.ac.kr


The present study was conducted to investigate associations between eating style and food intake of 45 female college students during Chuseok holidays.
A ten-day food record was obtained and divided into two parts. The first five days (September 20-24, 2015) were considered as a 'Normal Day (ND 1-5)' and the subsequent five days (September 25-29) as 'Holiday (HD6-10)'. The middle three days (September 26-28) of the holidays were considered as the 'Peak Holiday (PD7-9)'. Eating behaviors were measured using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and anthropometry was assessed in all study participants. Participants were grouped by cluster analysis according to the mean energy intake of the first three days of the Holiday.
Participants had a low-normal range of BMI and they were carefully restricting their food intake at Normal Day. Even the food intake did not exceed 2000 kcal per day during the Peak Holiday. External eating was the most prevalent type of eating behavior, followed by restrained eating and emotional eating. Normal energy and fat intake were correlated with the external eating subscale of the DEBQ. Restrained eating was associated with the weight, BMI, fat mass, waist, and hip girth of the subjects. Compared to the Normal Day, they overate during the Holiday with different eating styles including 'restraint', 'disinhibition', and 'fluctuation'. Therefore, neither eating behaviors nor anthropometry was associated with food intake during the Holiday. Although eating behaviors and anthropometric measures were not different among eating style clusters, the food intakes of disinhibition cluster were higher than those of restraint cluster during all the study periods.
Subjects can be classified with the restraint, disinhibition, and fluctuation clusters. However, eating behaviors and anthropometry were not different among three clusters.


eating behavior; restrained eating; dutch eating behavior questionnaire; holiday; food intake

MeSH Terms

Energy Intake
Feeding Behavior


  • Fig. 1 Cluster analysis according to eating style

Cited by  2 articles

Comparison and Analysis of Dieting Practices Using Big Data from 2010 and 2015
Eun-Jin Jung, Un-Jae Chang
Korean J Community Nutr. 2018;23(2):128-136.    doi: 10.5720/kjcn.2018.23.2.128.

The Analysis of a Diet for the Human Being and the Companion Animal using Big Data in 2016
Eun-Jin Jung, Young-Suk Kim, Jung-Wa Choi, Hye Won Kang, Un-Jae Chang
Clin Nutr Res. 2017;6(4):256-266.    doi: 10.7762/cnr.2017.6.4.256.


1. Keskitalo K, Tuorila H, Spector TD, Cherkas LF, Knaapila A, Kaprio J. The three-factor eating questionnaire, body mass index, and responses to sweet and salty fatty foods: a twin study of genetic and environmental associations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88(2):263–271.
2. Lim SH, Kim KH. The effects of sociocultural pressure for body thinness on eating behavior in female college students: Mediating effect of body dissatisfaction and moderating effect of BAS. Korean J Health Psychol. 2009; 14(4):853–869.
3. Meiselman HL, MacFie HJH. Food choice, acceptance and consumption. 1st ed. London: Blackie Academic & Professional;1996. p. 256–259.
4. Polivy J, Coleman J, Herman CP. The effect of deprivation on food cravings and eating behavior in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Int J Eat Disord. 2005; 38(4):301–309.
5. Greene GW, Schembre SM, White AA, Hoerr SL, Lohse B, Shoff S. Identifying clusters of college students at elevated health risk based on eating and exercise behaviors and psychosocial determinants of body weight. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111(3):394–400.
6. Herman CP, Polivy J. Anxiety, restraint, and eating behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. 1975; 84(6):66–72.
7. Stunkard AJ, Messick S. The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res. 1985; 29(1):71–83.
8. Van Strien T, Frijters JE, Bergers G, Defares PB. The Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained eating, emotional, and external eating behavior. Int J Eat Disord. 1986; 5(2):295–315.
9. Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kim JH. A study of the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the eating behavior questionnaire. Korean J Clin Psychol. 1996; 15(1):141–150.
10. Lee IS. A validity study of the restraint scale. Korean J Health Psychol. 2002; 7(1):143–158.
11. Shapiro JR, Anderson DA. Counterregulatory eating behavior in multiple item teat meals. Eat Behav. 2005; 6(2):169–178.
12. Lowe MR. Putting restrained and unrestrained nondieters on short-term diets: Effects on eating. Addict Behav. 1994; 19(4):349–356.
13. Scagliusi FB, Ferriolli E, Pfrimer K, Laureano C, Cunha CS, Gualano B. Characteristics of women who frequently under report their energy intake: a doubly labelled water study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009; 63(10):1192–1199.
14. Rennie KL, Siervo M, Jebb SA. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys? J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106(10):1667–1672.
15. Lee RD, Nieman DC. Nutritional assessment. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill;2003. p. 179–180.
16. Lee SL, Lee SH. Survey on health-related factors, nutrition knowledge and food habits of college students in Wonju area. Korean J Community Nutr. 2015; 20(2):96–108.
17. Kang S, Lee Y. Menstruation and the variability of food intake in female college students. Korean J Community Nutr. 2013; 18(6):577–587.
18. Seo EH. A study on food habits and nutrient intakes according to BMI in food and nutrition major and non-major female students in Kyungnam university. Korean J Community Nutr. 2014; 19(4):297–316.
19. Kim MK, Lee WY, Kang JH, Kang JH, Kim BT, Kim SM. 2014 Clinical practice guidelines for overweight and obesity in Korea. Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 29(4):405–409.
20. Song YM, Lee KY, Sung JH. Eating behaviors and weight over time in a prospective study: the Healthy Twin Study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014; 23(1):76–83.
21. Dakanalis A, Zanetti MA, Clerici M, Madeddu F, Riva G, Caccialanza R. Italian version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Psychometric proprieties and measurement invariance across sex, BMI-status and age. Appetite. 2013; 71:187–195.
22. Baños RM, Cebolla A, Moragrega I, Van Strien T, Fernández-Aranda F, Agüera Z. Relationship between eating styles and temperament in an anorexia nervosa, healthy control, and morbid obesity female sample. Appetite. 2014; 76:76–83.
23. Lee YJ, You JS, Chang KJ. Dietary habits score, nutrients intake and dietary quality related to coffee consumption of college students in Incheon. J Nutr Health. 2013; 46(6):560–572.
24. Kim SH. A survey on daily physical activity level, energy expenditure and dietary energy intake by university students in Chungnam province in Korea. J Nutr Health. 2013; 46(4):346–356.
25. Hong SM, Bak KJ, Jung SH, Oh KW, Hong YA. A study on nutrient intakes and hematological status of female college students of Ulsan city. Korean J Nutr. 1993; 26(3):338–346.
26. Kim SH. Patterns of dietary fat intake by university female students living in Kongju city: Comparisons among groups divided by living arrangement. Korean J Nutr. 1997; 30(3):286–298.
27. Kim SY, Cha BK, Kim SH. Anthropometric correlates of restrained eating in female college students during Korean Thanksgiving Holidays. Korean J Nutr. 1999; 32(6):746–755.
28. Savage JS, Hoffman L, Birch LL. Dieting, restraint, and disinhibition predict women's weight change over 6y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90(1):33–40.
29. De Lauzon-Guillain B, Basdevant A, Romon M, Karlsson J, Borys JM, Charles MA. Is restrained eating a risk factor for weight gain in a general population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83(1):132–138.
30. Elfhag K, Morey LC. Personality traits and eating behavior in the obese: Poor self-control in emotional and external eating but personality assets in restrained eating. Eat Behav. 2008; 9(3):285–293.
31. Hays NP, Bathalon GP, McCrory MA, Roubenoff R, Lipman R, Roberts SB. Eating behavior correlates of adult weight gain and obesity in healthy women aged 55-65y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75(3):476–483.
32. Beiseigel JM, Nickols-Richardson SM. Cognitive eating restraint scores are associated with body fatness but not with other measures of dieting in women. Appetite. 2004; 43(1):47–53.
33. Snoek HM, Engels RC, van Strien T, Otten R. Emotional, external and restrained eating behaviour and BMI trajectories in adolescence. Appetite. 2013; 67:81–87.
34. Koenders PG, van Strien T. Emotional eating, rather than lifestyle behavior, drives weight gain in a prospective study in 1562 employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2011; 53(11):1287–1293.
35. Cebolla A, Barrada JR, van Strien T, Oliver E, Baños R. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire(DEBQ) in a sample of Spanish women. Appetite. 2014; 73:58–64.
36. Wansink B, Painter JE, North J. Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obes Res. 2005; 13(1):93–100.
37. Haire C, Raynor HA. Weight status moderates the relationship between package size and food intake. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114(8):1251–1256.
38. van den Boer JH, Mars M. Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake. Appetite. 2015; 86:25–30.
39. Herman CP, Roth DA, Polivy J. Effects of the presence of others on food intake: a normative interpretation. Psychol Bull. 2003; 129(6):873–886.
40. Buckland NJ, Finlayson G, Edge R, Hetherington MM. Resistance reminders: Dieters reduce energy intake after exposure to diet-congruent food images compared to control non-food images. Appetite. 2014; 73:189–196.
41. Buckland NJ, Finlayson G, Hetherington MM. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters. Appetite. 2013; 71:430–437.
42. de Castro JM, Goldstein SJ. Eating attitudes and behaviors of pre-and postpubertal females: clues to the etiology of eating disorders. Physiol Behav. 1995; 58(1):15–23.
Full Text Links
  • KJCN
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr