Korean J Community Nutr.  2014 Aug;19(4):342-360. 10.5720/kjcn.2014.19.4.342.

Development of Nutrition Education Program for Consumers to Reduce Sodium Intake Applying the Social Cognitive Theory: Based on Focus Group Interviews

  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University, Bucheon, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Baewha Women's University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Keimyung University, Taegu, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food and Nutrition, Shingu College, Songnam, Korea. jskwon@shingu.ac.kr


This study aimed to develop nutrition education program for consumers to reduce sodium intake based on social cognitive theory (SCT).
The main factors of SCT related to low sodium diet were investigated by using focus group interview (FGI) with 30 women who participated in consumer organizations.
The main target groups for the education program were housewives (H), parents (P), and the office workers (OW), for which we considered their influences on other people and the surroundings. According to the results of FGI, in carrying out low sodium diet, 'positive outcome expectation' were prevention of chronic disease and healthy dietary habit, and 'negative outcome expectation' were low palatability of foods, difficulty in cooking meals, and limited choice of foods. The contents of the program and education materials were individualized by each group to raise self-efficacy and behavioral capability, which reflected the results of the FGI. The program included 'salt intake and health' to raise positive outcome expectation. For improving the ability to practice low-sodium diet, the program contained the contents that focused on 'cooking' and 'food purchasing' for H, on 'purchasing and selection of low-sodium food with the children' for P, and on 'way of selecting restaurant menu' for OW. Also the program included 'way of choosing the low-sodium foods when eating out' with suggestions on sodium content of the dishes and snacks. Further, 'dietary guidelines to reduce sodium intake' was also suggested to help self-regulation.
This nutrition education program and education materials could be utilized for the community education and provide the basis for further consumer targeted education program for reducing sodium intake.


reducing sodium intake; nutrition education program; focus group interview; social cognitive theory; consumer
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