Allergy Asthma Immunol Res.  2013 Mar;5(2):68-74. 10.4168/aair.2013.5.2.68.

The Innate Immune Response in House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Inflammation

  • 1Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.


Hypersensitivity to house dust mite (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) allergens is one of the most common allergic responses, affecting up to 85% of asthmatics. Sensitization to indoor allergens is the strongest independent risk factor associated with asthma. Additionally, >50% of children and adolescents with asthma are sensitized to HDM. Although allergen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells orchestrate the HDM allergic response through induction of IgE directed toward mite allergens, activation of innate immunity also plays a critical role in HDM-induced allergic inflammation. This review highlights the HDM components that lead to activation of the innate immune response. Activation may due to HDM proteases. Proteases may be recognized by protease-activation receptors (PARs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or C-type lectin receptors (CTRs), or act as a molecular mimic for PAMP activation signaling pathways. Understanding the role of mite allergen-induced innate immunity will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies that exploit innate immunity receptors and associated signaling pathways for the treatment of allergic asthma.


House dust mites; innate immunity; toll-like receptors; C-type lectin receptors; dendritic cells
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