Korean J Community Nutr.  2004 Jun;9(3):315-325.

Developing Breakfast Menus for Most Easily Breakfast-Skipping Groups

  • 1Department of Home Economics Education, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Foodservice Industry, Cheonan College of Foreign Studies, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food and Culinary Arts, Osan College, Osan, Korea.
  • 5Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 6Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea. parkys@sch.ac.kr


This study was conducted to develop the standard breakfast menu for those weak groups having insufficient breakfast intake. The following three target groups are classified as: 16 - 19 years old high school male student, 20 - 29 years old female who have job or college students, 20 - 29 years old male or female who have job (double income family). While developing menus for each target groups, we applied several basic guidelines for meal planning as follows: Nutrient intake level was set to 1/3 of RDA, while the energy level to 1/4 of RDAs. Most frequent meal pattern of Koreans was adapted; Suitabilities of appropriate serving size and cost for middle-income families were considered; Domestic foods and ingredients were used. We developed 24 menus summed by 2 menus for each season and three target groups. When evaluating the menus, most of the breakfast menus were sufficient of nutrients as a meal for the subjects. Three food groups such as grain/starch group, meat/fish/egg/bean group, vegetable/fruit group were included in all menus. Even though milk/dairy products group was not excluded for some menus, other calcium substitutes like anchovies were used. Oil/nut/sugar group was used to a minimum. The average number of foods for each menu was 12.8, which ranged from 10 to 17 depending on the menus. The average weight of the menus including soup was 822 g, 633 g and 730 g for each target group, respectively. The average price of the menu ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 won per person. The above results could be applied at home as well as foodservice institutes and furthermore could offer information for developing breakfast-substituting food products.


standard breakfast menu; three target groups; breakfast substitute
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