J Stroke.  2016 Jan;18(1):21-30. 10.5853/jos.2015.01739.

Moyamoya Disease: Treatment and Outcomes

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. wanoh@snu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Although the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been fully elucidated, the effectiveness of surgical revascularization in preventing stroke has been addressed by many studies. The main mechanism of surgical revascularization is augmenting the intracranial blood flow using an external carotid system by either direct bypass or pial synangiosis. This can improve resting cerebral blood flow as well as vascular reserve capacity. For direct revascularization, the superficial temporal artery is used as the donor artery in most cases, although the occipital artery may be used in limited cases. Usually, the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery is selected as the recipient of direct anastomosis. As for indirect revascularization, various techniques using different kinds of connective tissues have been introduced. In some cases, reinforcing the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery territories can be considered. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization for preventing ischemic stroke had been generally accepted by many studies. However, for preventing hemorrhagic stroke, new evidence has been added by a recent randomized controlled trial. The incidence of peri-operative complications such as stroke and hyperperfusion syndrome seems to be high due to the nature of the disease and technical demands for treatment. Preventing and adequately managing these complications are essential for ensuring the benefits of surgery.

Keyword

Moyamoya disease; Cerebral revascularization; Treatment outcome

MeSH Terms

Anterior Cerebral Artery
Arteries
Cerebral Revascularization
Connective Tissue
Humans
Incidence
Middle Cerebral Artery
Moyamoya Disease*
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Stroke
Temporal Arteries
Tissue Donors
Treatment Outcome
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