J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol.  2014 Dec;12(2):77-84. 10.0000/jksct.2014.12.2.77.

Acute Pancreatitis after Carbamate Poisoning

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea. khyun@yonsei.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, Ulsan University, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Carbamate insecticides are potent cholinesterase inhibitors capable of causing severe cholinergic toxicity. Use of carbamate rather than organophosphate insecticides has been increasing. Compared with organophosphate poisoning, relatively few studies have investigated carbamate-associated acute pancreatitis. We investigated general characteristics and pancreatitis of carbamate poisoning and the predictors, among those readily assessed in the emergency department.
METHODS
We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients, aged over 18 years, who were admitted between January 2008 and April 2012 to an emergency department (ED) of an academic tertiary care center for treatment of carbamate poisoning. Patients who exhibited poisoning by any other material, except alcohol, were excluded. After application of exclusion criteria, patients were divided according to carbamate-induced pancreatitis and non-pancreatitis groups.
RESULTS
A total of 41 patients were included in this study. Among these 41 patients, the prevalence of acute pancreatitis was 36.6% (15 patients). Initial blood chemistry tests showed a statistically higher glucose level in the pancreatitis group, compared with the non-pancreatitis group (222, IQR 189-284 vs. 137, IQR 122-175 mg/dL, P<0.05). Regarding clinical courses and outcomes, a significantly higher proportion of patients developed pneumonia [10 (66.7%) vs. 6 (23.1%), P<0.05] and had a longer hospital stay (7 days, IQR 6-12 vs. 5 days, IQR 2-11, P<0.05), but no difference in mortality, in the pancreatitis group vs. the non-pancreatitis group. In multivariate analysis, the initial glucose was showing significant association with the presentation of carbamate-induced acute pancreatitis (odds ratio 1.018, 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.035, P<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Carbamate-induced acute pancreatitis is common, but not fatal. Initial serum glucose level is associated with acute pancreatitis.

Keyword

Pancreatitis; Carbamates; Cholinesterase inhibitors; Lipase
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