J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol.  2010 Oct;14(2):111-119.

Water and Sodium Balance of Body Fluid

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. kkkjhd@yuhs.ac

Abstract

The maintenance of the osmolality of body fluids within a very narrow physiologic range is possible by water balance mechanisms that control the intake and excretion of water. Main factors of this process are the thirst and antidiuretic hormon arginine vasopressin (AVP), secretion regulated by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. Body water is the primary determinant of the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), disorders of body water homeostasis can be divided into hypo-osmolar disorders, in which there is an excess of body water relative to body solute, and hyperosmolar disorders, in which there is a deficiency of body water relative to body solute. The sodium is the predominant cation in ECF and the volume of ECF is directly proportional to the content of sodium in the body. Disorders of sodium balance, therefore, may be viewed as disorders of ECF volume. This reviews addresses the regulatory mechanisms underlying water and sodium metabolism, the two major determinants of body fluid homeostasis for a good understanding of the pathophysiology and proper management of disorders with disruption of water and sodium balance.

Keyword

Water balance; Sodium balance; Arginine vasopressin (AVP); Thirst

MeSH Terms

Arginine Vasopressin
Body Fluids
Body Water
Extracellular Fluid
Homeostasis
Hypothalamus
Osmolar Concentration
Sodium
Thirst
Arginine Vasopressin
Sodium
Full Text Links
  • JKSPN
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr