J Korean Geriatr Psychiatry.  1997 May;1(1):61-72.

A Study of Standardization of Korean Form of Geriatric Depression Scale(KGDS)

  • 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.


This study was aimed to standardize the Korean Geriatric Depression Scale (KGDS). In order to slove the unsatisfied discriminating power of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS:Yesavage et al. 1983) presented in Korean studies, the authors made KGDs. The preliminary KGDS was costructed of 40 items selected from GDS, BDI, SDS, MMPI-D, CES-S and had satisfied reliability and validity, but had some problems in item contents, number of times, and sampling. Thus by correcting these problems, the authors made new KGDS of 30 item, and tested the reliability and validity of the final version of KGDS. The values of Cronbach's alpha and Split-half reliability were .88 and .79 respectively, and correlational coefficent with GDS was .87. The differences of means was signified at alpha=.001 level (patients group mean=17.82 (10.52), control group mean=10.52 (5.12), t=12.07). On factor anlaysis, 5 factors in KGDS were extracted. They were labeled Emotional discomfort (factor 1), Negative thinking and Unhappinesss feeling (factor 2), Physical weakening and decreased vitality (factor 3), Cognitive dysfunction (factor 4), Decreased social interest and activity (factor 5), which represent depressive features of the elderly in thought, emotional, cognitive, physical, social aspects. The total percentage of variance of 5 factors was 53.72%. The result of discriminatin anlaysis showed that hit ratio of KGDS was 75%, and the score of 14 was suggested as the optimal cut-off score. Additionally, by use percentile score distribution of control group (normal) subjects, each of the score of 14-18, 19-21, over 22 suggested borderline or mild depression, moderate depression, severe depression, respectively. Conclusively, the final version of KGDS not only improved diagnostic discriminatory power approxtimately 10% than GDS, but also showed satisfiable reliability and validity. So the KGDS could be a useful tool for evaluaion of elderly depression.


Geriatric depression; Korean form of Geriatric Depression Scale (KGDS); Reliability; Validity; Cultural difference; Diagnostic discriminatory power
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