J Korean Orthop Assoc.  2014 Feb;49(1):1-6. 10.4055/jkoa.2014.49.1.1.

Ankle Sprains: Epidemiology, Anatomy and Injury Mechanism

  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. kissung@gmail.com


Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, nearly half of all ankle sprains occur during athletic activity. With a high incidence, as many as 40% of patients may experience residual discomfort including pain and instability, underscoring the importance of proper treatment and effective strategies for prevention. The stability of the ankle joint is maintained by both bony structure and ligamentous complex. The anterior talofibular ligament is the primary restraint of internal rotation and adduction of the talus with the ankle joint unloaded, while both bony mortise structure and calcaneofibular ligament restrict adduction of the talus with the ankle joint loaded. Plantar flexion and inversion is the most common mechanism of ankle sprains, which lead to injury of the anterior talofibular ligament followed by calcaneofibular ligament. Ligament injuries are classified according to three grades based on the extent of rupture and the severity of clinical features. Associated injuries with lateral ankle sprain include peroneus tendon rupture, osteochondral fracture, deltoid ligament injury, syndesmosis injury, and nerve traction injuries.


ankle joint; ankle injuries; ligament injury
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