J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.  2015 Sep;26(3):159-164. 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.159.

Smart-Phone Addiction, Depression/Anxiety, and Self-Esteem with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Children

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 2Environmental Health Center, Dankook University Medical Center, Cheonan, Korea. paperose@dku.edu
  • 3Ai-maum Child Psychiatric Clinics, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 5Chungnam Foreign High School, Asan, Korea.
  • 6Department of Nursing, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 7Department of Psychology, College of Social Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.


The current study investigated the risk of smartphone addiction among children and adolescents with or without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), risk of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem using the Smartphone Addiction Scale Proneness, Kovac's Children's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, commonly used in clinical medicine.
Ninety five students with ADHD who visited psychiatry outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire. At the same time, 592 middle and high school students living in a similar area regardless of ADHD diagnosis, completed the questionnaire as control subjects.
Overall, 40.0% of 95 ADHD and 12.8% of 592 control subjects were classified as the smartphone addiction proneness group, 26.3% of the ADHD subjects and 8.3% of the control group were classified as the depression group, and 32.6% of the ADHD subjects and 16.2% of the control group were classified as the anxiety group. Significant differences were observed between the two groups.
The results of this study suggest that ADHD subjects are more prone to smartphone addiction, becoming depressed or anxious than those in the control group. From this study, we could suggest that students with ADHD are more easily affected by smartphone addiction than normal control subjects. In addition, we might understand how some psychiatric problems like depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem are related to ADHD and smartphone addiction.


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity; Smartphone Addiction; Depression; Anxiety; Self-Esteem
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