Endocrinol Metab.  2014 Jun;29(2):136-143. 10.3803/EnM.2014.29.2.136.

Diagnostic Modalities for FGF23-Producing Tumors in Patients with Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia

  • 1Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. fukumoto-tky@umin.ac.jp


Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is produced by osteocytes and regulates phosphate and vitamin D metabolism through binding to the Klotho-FGF receptor complex. Excessive actions of FGF23 cause several kinds of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. Tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by overproduction of FGF23 from the responsible tumors. Because TIO is cured by complete resection of the causative tumors, it is of great clinical importance to locate these tumors. Several imaging methods including skeletal survey by magnetic resonance imaging and octreotide scintigraphy have been used to identify the tumors that cause TIO. However, none of these imaging studies indicate that the detected tumors are actually producing FGF23. Recently, systemic venous sampling was conducted for locating FGF23-producing tumor in suspected patients with TIO and demonstrated that this test might be beneficial to a subset of patient. Further studies with more patients are necessary to establish the clinical utility of venous sampling in patients with TIO.


Fibroblast growth factor 23; Hypophosphatemia; 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D; Sampling
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