Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg.  2016 Mar;38(3):13. 10.1186/s40902-016-0059-z.

Mixed-reality simulation for orthognathic surgery

  • 1Division of Orthodontics, Department of Highly Advanced Stomatology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 3-31-6 Tsuruya-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-0835 Japan.
  • 2Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-8580 Japan.


Mandibular motion tracking system (ManMoS) has been developed for orthognathic surgery. This article aimed to introduce the ManMoS and to examine the accuracy of this system.
Skeletal and dental models are reconstructed in a virtual space from the DICOM data of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) recording and the STL data of 3D scanning, respectively. The ManMoS uniquely integrates the virtual dento-skeletal model with the real motion of the dental cast mounted on the simulator, using the reference splint. Positional change of the dental cast is tracked by using the 3D motion tracking equipment and reflects on the jaw position of the virtual model in real time, generating the mixed-reality surgical simulation. ManMoS was applied for two clinical cases having a facial asymmetry. In order to assess the accuracy of the ManMoS, the positional change of the lower dental arch was compared between the virtual and real models.
With the measurement data of the real lower dental cast as a reference, measurement error for the whole simulation system was less than 0.32 mm. In ManMoS, the skeletal and dental asymmetries were adequately diagnosed in three dimensions. Jaw repositioning was simulated with priority given to the skeletal correction rather than the occlusal correction. In two cases, facial asymmetry was successfully improved while a normal occlusal relationship was reconstructed. Positional change measured in the virtual model did not differ significantly from that in the real model.
It was suggested that the accuracy of the ManMoS was good enough for a clinical use. This surgical simulation system appears to meet clinical demands well and is an important facilitator of communication between orthodontists and surgeons.


Orthognathic surgery; Mixed-reality simulation; Computed tomography; Motion tracking; Facial asymmetry; Dental compensation

MeSH Terms

Dental Arch
Dental Models
Facial Asymmetry
Orthognathic Surgery*
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