Korean J Fam Med.  2016 Mar;37(2):117-122. 10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.2.117.

Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012)

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Family Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. jinyoung.shin@samsung.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND
This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults.
METHODS
The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing.
RESULTS
The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (P<0.05). Among former smokers, the risk of periodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers.
CONCLUSION
Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults.

Keyword

Periodontal disease; Smoking; Smoking Cessation
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