Gut Liver.  2015 Jul;9(4):437-448. 10.5009/gnl15022.

Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

  • 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, USA.
  • 2Liver Transplantation, Center for Organ and Cell Transplantation, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, USA.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents.


Carcinoma, hepatocellular; Transarterial chemoembolization; Radiofrequency ablation; Staging systems; Sorafenib

MeSH Terms

Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology/*therapy
Catheter Ablation/trends
Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/trends
Combined Modality Therapy/trends
Liver Neoplasms/pathology/*therapy
Liver Transplantation
Neoplasm Staging/methods
Antineoplastic Agents
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