Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.  2016 Jan;20(1):53-62. 10.4196/kjpp.2016.20.1.53.

Effects of CoCl2 on multi-lineage differentiation of C3H/10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells

  • 1Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea. greatone@chonnam.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Dental Hygiene, Chodang University, Muan 58530, Korea.


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow and other somatic tissues reside in an environment with relative low oxygen tension. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can mimic hypoxic conditions through transcriptional changes of some genes including hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study evaluated the potential role of CoCl2 preconditioning on multi-lineage differentiation of C3H/10T1/2, a murine MSC line to understand its possible molecular mechanisms in vitro. CoCl2 treatment of MSCs markedly increased HIF-1alpha and VEGF mRNA, and protein expression of HIF-1alpha. Temporary preconditioning of MSCs with CoCl2 induced up-regulation of osteogenic markers including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen during osteogenic differentiation, followed by enhanced mineralization. CoCl2 also increased chondrogenic markers including aggrecan, sox9, and type II collagen, and promoted chondrocyte differentiation. CoCl2 suppressed the expression of adipogenic markers including PPARgamma, aP2, and C/EBPalpha, and inhibited adipogenesis. Temporary preconditioning with CoCl2 could affect the multi-lineage differentiation of MSCs.


Differentiation; Hypoxia; Mesenchymal stem cells
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