J Korean Ophthalmol Soc.  1979 Dec;20(4):517-526.

Comparative Studies of Timolol and Pilocarpine in Normal Volunteers

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

We compared the effects of timolol ophthalmic solution versus pilocarpine ophthalmic solution in view of the changes in intraocular pressure, visual acuity, pupillary size, pulse rate, blood pressure and other ocular and systemic side effects in 30 normal volunteers whose ages were between 3rd and 4th decade. We divided 30 volunteers randomly into two large groups, one for 0.25% timolol ophthalmic solution and the other for 1% pilocarpine ophthalmic solution. By dropping one drop of above mentioned ophthalmic solutions into randomly selected one eye of the two large groups, we finally divided them into four subgroups-0.25% timolol treated, 0.25% timolol untreated, 1% pilocarpine treated and 19b pilocarpine untreated (control group). We checked intraocular pressure, visual acuity, pupillay sizes, pulse rate, blood pressure and the other ocular and systemic side effects for eight hours from 8 A.M. By dropping 0.5% timolol and 2.0% pilocarpine ophthalmic solution after one week drug free interval, we checked same items with same procedure except the reverse of the previous drug and site of treated eyes. The Goldmann applanation tonometer, Dr, Ran's visual acuity chart, plastic millimeter ruler, radial arterial pulse beat per minute and sphygmomanometer in sitting position were used. We evaluated the statistical significance of the changes according to the t-test and P-value. The results were as follows: 1. In 0.25% timolol ophthalmic solution treated eyes, the intraocular pressure in two hours after instillation was reduced by 3. 6mm.Rg (28.8% of pretreated intraocular pressure) and the effect lasted long during examination (P<0.01). In 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution treated eyes, the intraocular pressure in two hours after instillation was reduced by 4.4 mm.Hg (30.6% of pretreated intraocular pressure) and the effect lasted long during examination (P<0.01). Each pressure lowering effect of 0.25% and 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution were better than each effect of 1.0% and 2.0% pilocarpine ophthalmic solution (p<0.2, p<0.05 respectively). the intraocular pressure of the contralateral eyes of 0.25% and 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution treated eyes were reduced by 2.6mm.Hg and 3.2mm.Hg respectively and the effects lasted long during examination (P<0.01) and were similar to those of pilocarpine ophthalmic solutions (P>0.5). 2. In the effects of 0.25% and 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution as well as pilocarpine ophthalmic solution. there was no significant effect to the visual acuity. 3. There were no significant changes in pupillary sizes after instillation of 0.25% and 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution respectively (P>0.5). But there were significant differences compared to the changes in pulillary sizes after 1.0% and 2.0% pilocarpine ophthalmic solution, respectively (P<0.01). 4. There was seen the decreasing tendency (5/min in average) in pulse rate in the 0.25% timolol ophthalmic solution treated group during the entire examination (P<0.2) but there were irregular ckanges in the other timolol treated and the both pilocarpine treated groups (P>0.5). 5. There was seen the decreasing tendency by 7 mm.Hg in systole and 6 mm.Hg in diastole on two hours later in the 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution treated group (P<0.2), but there were irregular changes in the other timolol treated and the both pilocarpine treated groups (P>0.5). 6. There were no significant ocular and systemic side effects in the 0.25% and 0.5% timolol ophthalmic solution treated groups.

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