J Korean Soc Med Ultrasound.  2004 Jun;23(2):83-89.

Fetal Extracardiac Anomalies Associated with Congenital Cardiac Diseases

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Korea. rad1995@hanafos.com

Abstract

PURPOSE
To evaluate the incidence of associated extracardiac anomalies in fetuses with congenital heart defects on fetal echocardiography, and to estimate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities according to the extracardiac anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2001, 101 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed extracardiac anomalies and congenital cardiac diseases were selected for study. The mean gestational age at the time of the ultrasound exam was about 25 weeks. Associated extracardiac anomalies were classified into CNS, face and neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary system, musculoskeletal, other and multi-systemic aanomalies groups. Chromosomal studies including chorionic villi sampling, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, and postnatal exam were correlated. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal anomalies were the most commonly associated extracardiac anomalies (n=28, 27.7%). Abdominal anomaly (n=26, 25.7%), central nervous system anomaly (n=25, 24.8%), genitourinary anomaly(n=12, 11.9%), thoracic anomaly (n=4, 4%), face and neck anomaly (n=3, 3%) were found. Twenty eight fetuses showed other anomalies (n=28, 27.7%). Multi-systemic anomalies were also common (n=20, 19.8%). Fetal anomalies involving two systems were noted in 15 fetuses, and anomalies of more than three systems were not uncommon (5 fetuses). Chromosomal study of 38 fetuses revealed 19 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes (50%). For 19 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes, central nervous system anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were the most frequently associated with extracardiac abnormalities (n=9). Multi-systemic anomalies were associated in 9 of the 19 fetuses. CONCLUSION: In fetuses with cardiac defects, the musculoskeletal, abdomen and CNS anomalies were commonly associated with extracardiac anomalies. Various extracardiac anomalies such as, head and neck anomalies, CNS anomalies, musculoskeletal anomalies, and multi-organ anomalies were highly correlated with chromosomal abnormalities, and so this relationship requires chromosomal study.


MeSH Terms

Abdomen
Abnormal Karyotype
Amniocentesis
Central Nervous System
Chorionic Villi Sampling
Chromosome Aberrations
Cordocentesis
Echocardiography
Female
Fetus
Gestational Age
Head
Heart Defects, Congenital
Heart Diseases*
Incidence
Neck
Pregnancy
Thorax
Ultrasonography
Urogenital System
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