J Vet Sci.  2014 Dec;15(4):519-528. 10.4142/jvs.2014.15.4.519.

Enhancing effects of serum-rich and cytokine-supplemented culture conditions on developing blastocysts and deriving porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells

  • 1Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Anyang 430-757, Korea. virusmania@korea.kr
  • 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea.
  • 3College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
  • 4ATGen Ltd., Seongnam 463-400, Korea.


The present study was conducted to develop an effective method for establishment of porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ppESCs) from parthenogenetically activated oocyte-derived blastocysts. The addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the medium on the 3rd day of oocyte culturing improved the development of blastocysts, attachment of inner cell masses (ICMs) onto feeder cells, and formation of primitive ppESC colonies. ICM attachment was further enhanced by basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor. From these attached ICMs, seven ppESC lines were established. ppESC pluripotency was verified by strong enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotent markers OCT3/4, Nanog, and SSEA4. Moreover, the ppESCs were induced to form an embryoid body and teratoma. Differentiation into three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) was confirmed by the expression of specific markers for the layers and histological analysis. In conclusion, data from the present study suggested that our modified culture conditions using FBS and cytokines are highly useful for improving the generation of pluripotent ppESCs.


fetal bovine serum; inner cell mass; parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell; porcine; teratoma
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