Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.  2000 Jun;33(6):476-486.

Early and Mid-Term Results after Operations for Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

  • 1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, College of Medicine, Dong-A University.
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Dong-A University.


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum(PA/IVS) is an anatomically heterogenous anomaly with a variety of surgical strategies possible. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of right ventricular size on the early and midterm results of surgical repair of PA/IVS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Medical records of 20 consecutive patients with PA/IVS operated on between January 1993 and August 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 12 boys and 8 girls whose ages ranged from 2 days to 14.5 months (median 6 days). Their body weight ranged from 2.52kg to 9.35 kg(median 3.18kg). The preoperative Z-value of the diameter of the tricuspid valve(T-valve) was less than or -4 in 5 patients, between -4 and -2 in 1, between -2 and 0 in 7, between 0 and 2 in 6, and greater than or 2 in 1. All patients who had z-value of tricuspid valve greater than -2.05 were attempted biventricular repair(n=15) and all patients who had it smaller than -4.4 underwent systemic-pulmonary shunt operation only(n=3) or bidirectinal cavopulmonary shunt with right ventricular reconstruction(n=2). RESULT: Two early deaths(2/20, 10%) occurred. Both were infants who underwent transannular patch with shunt. One of these two had huge right ventricle(Z-value of tricuspid valve = 5). There were 2 late non-cardiac deaths 3 and 7 months after operations respectively. Follow-up was completed in all children at a mean of 35.3 months(range, 5 to 54 months). 10 of 11 survivors who underwent transannular patch or valvotomy with or without shunt procedure were in NYHA functional class I even though some of them had small interatrial communication or patent shunt. All three patients who had shunt procedure only at initial palliation completed Fontan procedures with no death. Two patients who underwent right ventricular outflow reconstruction with bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt were also in good condition.
The transanular RVOT patch or valvotomy with or without systemic-pumonary shunt as an initial palliative procedure to achieve biventricular repair for the patients who had neither too small nor too large right ventricle(-2.05< or =Z-value of T-value of T-valve< or =2) could be performed at low operative risk(1/14 7.1%). Systemic-pulmonary shunt procedure and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt procedure for the patients who had small right ventricle(Z-value of T-valve< or =4.4) could be also performed with low risk. But a patient with huge right atrium and ventricle(Z-value of t-valve=5) had poor operative result.


Pulmonary atresia

MeSH Terms

Body Weight
Follow-Up Studies
Fontan Procedure
Heart Atria
Heart Bypass, Right
Medical Records
Pulmonary Atresia*
Retrospective Studies
Tricuspid Valve
Ventricular Septum*
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