Gut Liver.  2008 Dec;2(3):155-165.

Transnasal Route: New Approach to Endoscopy

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Endoscopy Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.


Transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (TN-EGD) has recently become one of the frequently used methods of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in some countries. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation are smaller for TN-EGD than for conventional transoral esophagogastroduodenoscopy, making it a safer procedure. Lower pain and gag reflex enable TN-EGD to be performed without conscious sedation. TN-EGD is applied in various gastrointestinal (GI) procedures such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, nasoenteric feeding tube placement, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography with nasobiliary drainage and lithotripsy, long intestinal tube placement in small-bowel obstruction, esophageal manometry, foreign body removal, botulinum toxin injection for achalasia, esophageal varix evaluation with the aid of endoscopic ultrasonography, and the double-scope technique for endoscopic submucosal dissection. The establishment of standard training programs and nationwide guidelines, the dissemination of educational information, the improvement in endoscopy devices and accessories, and the availability of insurance coverage for the procedure will obviously further widen the adoption of TN-EGD.


Transnasal; Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; Gastrointestinal; Endoscopy
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