J Korean Surg Soc.  1997 May;52(5):720-731.

A Comparative Study of Bile Compositions From patients with Gallbladder Stones and Common Bile Duct stones

  • 1Department of Surgery, Chungang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chungang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


To clarify the mechanisms of stone formation in gallbladder and in common bile duct, the bile composition, such as cholesterol, total bile acid, major bile acids, phospholipid, protein and calcium, from patients with gallbladder stones, common bile duct stones and control groups were analyzed for comparison. The control group consisted of patients who had neither biliary stone nor biliary tract disease. The results obtained are as follows; 1. In the mean concentrations of bile cholesterol and protein from each disease group, no statistically significant difference of these compositions was observed according to sorts of stone(p > 0.05). 2. In the cholesterol stone group the mean concentration of total bile acid of bile from gallbladder stone group was higher than that of common bile duct stone group (p < 0.05). In the pigment stone group, T/D ratio of bile from gallbladder stone group tended to be higher than that of CBD stone group. But these differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.09). 3. In the pigment stone groups, the mean concentration of bile phospholipid from gallbladder stone group was significantly higher than that of CBD stone group (p < 0.05). 4. The mean concentration of bile protein from gallbladder stone group was higher than that of CBD stone group in the pigment stone group (p < 0.05). 5. The mean concentration of bile calcium was significantly higher in gallbladder stone group than that in CBD stone group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supersaturation of cholesterol in bile may not be sufficient to explain cholesterol gallstone formation. The increase in total bile acid especially LCA, DCA, CDCA may be involved in cholesterol gallbladder stone formation, whereas pigment gallbladder stone formation is thought to be related to decreased T/D ratio of bile which means high dihydroxycholanic acid of bile. Additionally, the results suggest that phospholipid, protein and calcium contribute to pigment gallbladder stone formation by playing great roles in forming matrix as nucleus in pigment stone, but further investigation may be needed to detect calcium ion critical for calcium crystal formation.


Bile composition; GB stone; CBD stone; Stone formation

MeSH Terms

Bile Acids and Salts
Biliary Tract Diseases
Common Bile Duct*
Bile Acids and Salts
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