Korean J Orthod.  1998 Feb;28(1):75-83.

A study on the errors in the cephalometric measurements

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Korea.


This study was done to recognize the importance of errors in measurements of cephalometric radiograph and to find the anatomical structures those need special care to select as a reference points through the detection of the systematic errors and estimation of random errors. For this purose, 100 cephalometric radiographs were prepared by usual manner and 61 reference points, and 130 measurement variables were established. Measurement errors were detected and estimated by the comparison of the 25 randomly-selected samples for repeated measurements with the main sample. The following results were obtained: 1. In comparison of the repeated measurements, there were statistical significant differences in 24 variables which were 18.4% of 130 total variables. 2. The frequency of the difference in identification of the reference points between the repeated measurements was very high in the root apex of upper incisor(as), the most posterior wall of maxilla(tu), soft tissue nasion(n'), soft tissue frontal eminence(ft), and adl in airway. 3. After correction of reference points marking until the level of below 59,6 significance, the range of random errors were from 0.67 to 1.71 degree or mm. 4. The variable shown the largest random error was the intenncisal angle(ILs-lLi). 5. Measurement errors were mainly caused by the lack of precision in anatomic definitions and obscure radiographic image. From the above results, the author could find the high possibility of errors in cephalometric measurements and from this point, we should include error analysis in all the studies concerning measurments. In is essential to have a concept of error analysis not only for the investigator but also for a reader of other articles.


Cephalometrics; Measurement error

MeSH Terms

Activities of Daily Living
Research Personnel
Full Text Links
  • KJOD
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr