Anat Cell Biol.  2014 Jun;47(2):101-110. 10.5115/acb.2014.47.2.101.

Region-specific changes in the immunoreactivity of Atg9A in the central nervous system of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice

  • 1Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Biology, School of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea.


Autophagy is a eukaryotic self-degradation system that plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Atg9 is the only transmembrane Atg protein required for autophagosome formation. Although the subcellular localization of the Atg9A has been examined, little is known about its precise cell and tissue distribution. In the present study, we used G93A mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 [SOD1(G93A)] mutant transgenic mice as an in vivo model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and performed immunohistochemical studies to investigate the changes of Atg9A immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of these mice. Atg9A-immunoreactivity was detected in the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, thalamus and cerebellum of symptomatic SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. By contrast, no Atg9A-immunoreactivity were observed in any brain and spinal cord region of wtSOD1, pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice, and the number and staining intensity of Atg9A-positive cells did not differ in SOD1(G93A) mice between 8 and 13 weeks of age. These results provide evidence that Atg9A-immunoreactivity were found in the central nervous system of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice after clinical symptoms, suggesting a possible role in the pathologic process of ALS. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased immunoreactivity for Atg9A and the functional implications require elucidation.


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice; Atg9A; Cerebral cortex; Hippocampus; Thalamus
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