Korean Circ J.  2014 Jan;44(1):30-36. 10.4070/kcj.2014.44.1.30.

High Sodium Intake in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

Affiliations
  • 1Cardiovascular Center, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea. mooyong_rhee@dumc.or.kr
  • 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Korea.
  • 3Clinical Trial Center, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
  • 4Nutrition Safety Policy Division, Food Nutrition and Dietary Safety Bureau, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong, Korea.
  • 5Department of Statistics, Survey Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Metabolic syndrome and high sodium intake are associated with frequent cardiovascular events. Few studies have estimated sodium intake in subjects with metabolic syndrome by 24-hour urine sodium excretion. We evaluated sodium intake in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Participants were recruited by random selection and through advertisement. Twenty four-hour urine collection, ambulatory blood pressure measurements, and blood test were performed. Sodium intake was estimated by 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Participants receiving antihypertensive medications were excluded from analysis.
RESULTS
Among the 463 participants recruited, subjects with metabolic syndrome had higher levels of 24-hour urine sodium excretion than subjects without metabolic syndrome (p=0.0001). There was a significant relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome factors and 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p=0.001). The proportion of subjects with metabolic syndrome was increased across the tertile groups of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p<0.0001). The association of high sodium intake and metabolic syndrome was significant only among women. Among the factors related to metabolic syndrome, body mass index had an independent association with 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION
Women with metabolic syndrome exhibited significantly higher sodium intake, suggesting that dietary education to reduce sodium consumption should be emphasized for women with metabolic syndrome.

Keyword

Sodium, dietary; Metabolic syndrome; Hypertension

MeSH Terms

Blood Pressure
Body Mass Index
Education
Female
Hematologic Tests
Humans
Hypertension
Sodium*
Sodium, Dietary
Urine Specimen Collection
Sodium
Sodium, Dietary
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