Clin Endosc.  2015 Mar;48(2):96-101. 10.5946/ce.2015.48.2.96.

Endoscopic Management of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: State of the Art

  • 1Department of Gastroenterology and Oncology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.


Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently developed endoscopic devices and supporting apparatuses can achieve endoscopic hemostasis with greater safety and efficiency. With these advancements in technology and technique, gastroenterologists should have no concerns regarding the management of acute upper GI bleeding, provided that they are well prepared and trained. However, when endoscopic hemostasis fails, endoscopy should not be continued. Rather, endoscopists should refer patients to radiologists and surgeons without any delay for evaluation regarding the appropriateness of emergency interventional radiology or surgery.


Hemorrhage; Hemostasis; Equipment and supplies
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