Korean J Gastroenterol.  2012 Feb;59(2):180-184. 10.4166/kjg.2012.59.2.180.

A Case of Afferent Loop Syndrome with Acute Cholangitis Developed after Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangioscopic Lithotripsy for Treatment of Choledocholithiasis in a Patient Who Underwent Billroth II Gastrectomy

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea. inos@inha.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.


Afferent loop syndrome is a rare complication which can occur in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. Bile and pancreatic juice is congested at afferent loop in the syndrome. This syndrome can progress rapidly to necrosis, perforation, or severe sepsis, and therefore early diagnosis and swift surgical intervention is important. But, cases of endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic drainage have been reported when surgical management was inappropriate to proceed. We report a case of afferent loop syndrome accompanying acute cholangitis developed after percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy for the retrieval of common bile duct stone in a patient who underwent Billroth II gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer. There was no other organic cause. We treated afferent loop syndrome successfully by performing balloon dilation of afferent loop outlet.


Afferent loop syndrome; Cholangitis; Lithotripsy; Choledocholithiasis; Gastrectomy

MeSH Terms

Acute Disease
Afferent Loop Syndrome/*etiology
Aged, 80 and over
Balloon Dilation
Common Bile Duct
Lithotripsy/*adverse effects
Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Fig. 1 Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographic finding. A single round filling defect was observed alongside mild luminal narrowing of distal common bile duct in the common bile duct.

  • Fig. 2 Abdominal CT findings. (A) Markedly dilated afferent loop was filled with water, and the lumen of the afferent loop outlet was twisted without any luminal lesions (arrowheads). (B) Follow-up CT showed the decompressed afferent loop. Two plastic stents were migrated spontaneously and showed in the transverse colon (arrowheads).

  • Fig. 3 Endoscopic findings. (A) The outlet of the afferent loop was twisted (arrowheads). (B) There was no specific mucosal lesion at the afferent loop outlet dilated after balloon dilation.

  • Fig. 4 Fluoroscopic findings. (A) The outlet of the afferent loop was dilated using balloon dilation catheter. (B) Two double pig-tailed plastic stents were placed in the afferent loop outlet.


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