Korean J Parasitol.  2014 Oct;52(5):471-478. 10.3347/kjp.2014.52.5.471.

Molecular Characterization of Various Trichomonad Species Isolated from Humans and Related Mammals in Indonesia

  • 1Department of Parasitology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. tokoro@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp
  • 2Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
  • 3Eijkman Institute of Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • 4Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's University, Nara, Japan.


Trichomonad species inhabit a variety of vertebrate hosts; however, their potential zoonotic transmission has not been clearly addressed, especially with regard to human infection. Twenty-one strains of trichomonads isolated from humans (5 isolates), pigs (6 isolates), rodents (6 isolates), a water buffalo (1 isolate), a cow (1 isolate), a goat (1 isolate), and a dog (1 isolate) were collected in Indonesia and molecularly characterized. The DNA sequences of the partial 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or 5.8S rRNA gene locus with its flanking regions (internal transcribed spacer region, ITS1 and ITS2) were identified in various trichomonads; Simplicimonas sp., Hexamastix mitis, and Hypotrichomonas sp. from rodents, and Tetratrichomonas sp. and Trichomonas sp. from pigs. All of these species were not detected in humans, whereas Pentatrichomonas hominis was identified in humans, pigs, the dog, the water buffalo, the cow, and the goat. Even when using the high-resolution gene locus of the ITS regions, all P. hominis strains were genetically identical; thus zoonotic transmission between humans and these closely related mammals may be occurring in the area investigated. The detection of Simplicimonas sp. in rodents (Rattus exulans) and P. hominis in water buffalo in this study revealed newly recognized host adaptations and suggested the existence of remaining unrevealed ranges of hosts in the trichomonad species.


Pentatrichomonas hominis; trichomonad species; molecular taxonomy; internal transcribed spacer; zoonotic transmission; low vacuum SEM
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