Yonsei Med J.  2009 Dec;50(6):757-763. 10.3349/ymj.2009.50.6.757.

Increased Inflammation, Reduced Plasma Phospholipid Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Reduced Antioxidant Potential of Treated Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2National Hypertension Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. namsikc@yuhs.ac
  • 4Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University, Masan, Korea.


In the present study, we tested whether the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) would worsen the features of inflammation, plasma omega 3 fatty acid levels and antioxidant potential in treated hypertensive patients.
Two groups were classified by the components of MetS: a reference group of treated hypertensive subjects: hypertension (HTN) group (n = 39) and with more than two additional MetS components: HTN with Mets group (n = 40). We further compared the parameters between HTN group and HTN with MetS group.
The results showed that age (p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) were significantly different between HTN group and HTN with MetS group. Age- and BMI-adjusted total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) (p < 0.01) was significantly lower, whereas age- and BMI-adjusted CD (p < 0.05) and interleukin (IL) 6 (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in HTN with MetS group than in HTN group. Moreover, HTN with MetS group had significantly lower levels of age- and BMI-adjusted plasma phospholipid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than HTN group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the levels of age- and BMI-adjusted intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), adiponectin and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin were not significantly different between the groups.
In conclusion, our results showed increased inflammatory marker, reduced antioxidant potential and EPA levels in treated hypertensive patients in the presence of MetS, suggesting the importance of changes of therapeutic lifestyle to modify the features of MetS.


Metabolic syndrome X; hypertension; oxidative stress; eicosapentaenoic acid; antioxidants; cytokines

MeSH Terms

Age Factors
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
Body Mass Index
Eicosapentaenoic Acid/*blood
Hypertension/*blood/drug therapy/*immunology
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood
Metabolic Syndrome X/blood/*complications/immunology
Middle Aged


  • Fig. 1 Comparison of age- and BMI-adjusted levels of IL-6 and EPA between hypertension group and hypertension with MetS group (*p < 0.05). BMI, body mass index; IL-6, interleukin-6; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; MetS, metabolic syndrome.

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Dietary Very Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Factors: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013
Youn Sue Lee, Yoonsu Cho, Min-Jeong Shin
Clin Nutr Res. 2015;4(3):182-189.    doi: 10.7762/cnr.2015.4.3.182.


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