Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.  2004 Apr;8(2):89-94.

Effects of Central Interleukin-1 on the Cardiovascular Response in Hemorrhaged Rats

  • 1Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.
  • 2Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.


The arterial pressure is regulated by the nervous and humoral mechanisms. The neuronal regulation is mostly carried out by the autonomic nervous system through the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key area for the cardiovascular regulation, and the humoral regulation is mediated by a number of substances, including the angiotensin (Ang) II and vasopressin. Recent studies suggest that central interleukin-1 (IL-1) activates the sympathetic nervous system and produces hypertension. The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether IL-1 and Ang II interact in the regulation of cardiovascular responses to the stress of hemorrhage. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and both femoral arteries were cannulated for direct measurement of arterial pressure and heart rate (HR) and for inducing hemorrhage. A guide cannula was placed into the lateral ventricle for injection of IL-1 (0.1, 1, 10, 20 ng/2mul) or Ang II (600 ng/10mul). A glass microelectrode was inserted into the RVLM to record the single unit spike potential. Barosensitive neurons were identified by an increased number of single unit spikes in RVLM following intravenous injection of nitroprusside. I.c.v. IL-1beta increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent fashion, but HR in a dose-independent pattern. The baroreceptor reflex sensitivity was not affected by i.c.v. IL-1beta. Both i.c.v. IL-1alpha and beta produced similar increase in MAP and HR. When hemorrhage was induced after i.c.v. injection of IL-1beta, the magnitude of MAP fall was not different from the control. The IL-1beta group showed a smaller decrease in HR and a lower spike potential count in RVLM than the control. MAP fall in response to hemorrhage after i.c.v. injection of Ang II was not different from the control. When both IL-1 and Ang II were simultaneously injected i.c.v., however, MAP fall was significantly smaller than the control, and HR was increased rather than decreased. These data suggest that IL-1, a defense immune mediator, manifests a hypertensive action in the central nervous system and attenuates the hypotensive response to hemorrhage by interaction with Ang II.


Angiotensin II; Interleukin-1; Hemorrhage; Cardiovascular regulation
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